Essential hypertension is a common disorder that can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). CD36 has been studied in patients with diabetes and hypertension extensively; however, few studies have focused on the relationship of the CD36 gene with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2D in essential hypertension patients. To identify rs1049673 and rs1527483 in the CD36 gene conferring susceptibility to IFG/IGT and T2D, we conducted a case-control study in 1257 essential hypertension patients among the Han Chinese population (control: 676; IGT/IFG: 468; T2D: 113). We also evaluated the impact of two loci on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and serum lipid. The major findings of this study were that rs1049673 was found associated with IFG/IGT and T2D in essential hypertension patients (Pco = 0.028; Pdom = 0.015). The rs1049673 G carriers showed significant higher Glu0 (βdom = 0.08 (0.01~0.16), Pdom = 0.045) and Lp(a) (βco = 0.04 (0.002~0.07), Pco = 0.041; βdom = 0.06 (0.01~0.12), Pdom = 0.032), and lower HDL by the linear regression with the adjustment for gender, age, BMI, and mean blood pressures. These findings provided evidence that the CD36 gene may play some role in the pathogenesis of IFG/IGT and T2D in essential hypertension patients.