In this study, we examined the validity of a novel subjective scale for assessing resistance-exercise effort. Seventeen male bodybuilders performed five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one-repetition maximum, for the bench press and squat. At the completion of each set, participants quantified their effort via the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and novel estimated-repetitions-to-failure scales, and continued repetitions to volitional exhaustion to determine actual-repetitions-to-failure. There were high correlations between estimated- and actual-repetitions-to-failure across sets for the bench press and squat (r ≥ 0.93; P < 0.05). During sets 3, 4, and 5, estimated-repetitions-to-failure predicted the number of repetitions to failure for the bench press and squat, as indicated by smaller effect sizes for differences (ES = 0.37-0.0). The estimated-repetitions-to-failure scale was reliable as indicated by high intraclass correlation coefficients (≥0.92) and narrow 95% limits of agreement (≤0.63 repetitions) for both the bench press and squat. Despite high correlations between RPE and actual-repetitions-to-failure (P < 0.05), RPE at volitional fatigue was less than maximal for both exercises. Our results suggest that the estimated-repetitions-to-failure scale is valid for predicting onset of muscular failure, and can be used for the assessment and prescription of resistance exercise.