The T-cell subset Th17 is induced partly by interleukin (IL)-6 and activated by IL-23, and produces a proinflammatory cytokine IL-17. Since IL-6 increases dramatically following long-lasting endurance exercise, this response may also stimulate the induction of IL-17 and IL-23 after exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the dynamics of IL-17 in association with endurance exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Fourteen male triathletes participated in a duathlon race consisting of 5 km of running, 40 km of cycling and 5 km of running. Venous blood and urine samples were collected before, immediately after 1.5 h and 3 h after the race. Plasma and urine were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Haematological and biochemical variables such as neutrophil activation marker (myeloperoxidase: MPO), muscle damage marker (myoglobin: Mb) and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-KB ligand (sRANKL) were also determined to estimate the biological and pathological significance. Plasma concentrations oflL-6 (+26.0x), MPO (+3.2x) and Mb (+4.9x) increased significantly immediately after the race and IL-17 and IL-23 tended to increase. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of IL-12p40 and sRANKL increased significantly after the race. The measured parameters related to Thl 7 cytokines in the urinary output were closely correlated with each other and muscle damage marker. These findings suggest that IL-17 induced by IL-6 and activated by IL-23 or other IL-17 producing-cells and IL-23 might promote neutrophil activation and muscle damage following prolonged endurance exercise.