Human endogenous retrovirus expression is inversely associated with chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection

PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e41021. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041021. Epub 2012 Aug 7.


Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are remnants of ancestral retroviral infections integrated into the germ line, and constitute approximately 8% of the genome. Several autoimmune disorders, malignancies, and infectious diseases such as HIV-1 are associated with higher HERV expression. The degree to which HERV expression in vivo results in persistent inflammation is not known. We studied the association of immune activation and HERV-K expression in 20 subjects with chronic, untreated progressive HIV-1 infection and 10 HIV-1 negative controls. The mean HERV-K gag and env RNA expression level in the HIV-1 infected cohort was higher than in the control group (p = 0.0003), and was negatively correlated with the frequency of activated CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells (Rho = -0.61; p = 0.01) and activated CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells (Rho = -0.51; p = 0.03). Although HIV-infected persons had higher levels of HERV-K RNA expression (as expected), the level of RNA expression was negatively associated with level of T cell activation. The mechanism for this unexpected association remains to be defined.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Demography
  • Endogenous Retroviruses / genetics*
  • Endogenous Retroviruses / immunology*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral*
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • RNA, Viral / metabolism


  • RNA, Viral