Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a costly, worldwide problem with significant annual morbidity and mortality. Guideline-based primary and secondary prevention is effective in preventing and controlling CVD. Such prevention must be implemented by an integrated team of physician-directed health professionals, during both the inpatient and the outpatient phases of care. Appropriate team members may include, but are not limited to, nurses, advanced practice nurses, physician assistants, dietitians, physical therapists, psychologists, pharmacists, cardiac fellows, exercise physiologists, and case managers. During the acute phase of care, various teams are activated as appropriate to specific needs of the patient in the medical (invasive and noninvasive) and surgical specialties. The outpatient phase varies with diagnosis and condition of the patient and team members are involved as needed. An integrated team effort is essential to the best care for each patient regarding individual management and will assure that evidence-based guidelines, in both treatment and secondary prevention, are implemented.
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