Galectin-3 is an independent marker for ventricular remodeling and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure

Clin Res Cardiol. 2013 Feb;102(2):103-10. doi: 10.1007/s00392-012-0500-y. Epub 2012 Aug 12.


Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a recently discovered marker for myocardial fibrosis and elevated levels are associated with an impaired outcome after short-term follow-up in heart failure (HF) patients. However, whether Gal-3 is related to cardiac remodeling and outcome after long-term follow-up is unknown. Therefore, we determined the utility of Gal-3 as a novel biomarker for left ventricular remodeling and long-term outcome in patients with severe chronic HF.

Methods and results: A total of 240 HF patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III and IV were included. Patients were followed for 8.7 ± 1 years, had a mean age of 71 ± 0.6 years and 73 % of the study population was male. Circulating levels of NT-proBNP and Gal-3 were measured. Serial echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 3 months. At baseline median left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) was 267 mL [interquartile range 232-322]. Patients were divided into three groups according to the change in LVEDV. Patients in whom the LVEDV decreased over time had significant lower levels of Gal-3 at entry compared to patients in whom the LVEDV was stable or increased (14.7 vs. 17.9 vs. 19.0 ng/mL; p = 0.004 for trend), whereas no significant differences were seen in levels of NT-proBNP (p = 0.33). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that Gal-3 levels were positively correlated to change in LVEDV (p = 0.007). In addition, Gal-3 was a significant predictor of mortality after long-term follow-up (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Gal-3 is associated with left ventricular remodeling determined by serial echocardiography and predicts long-term mortality in patients with severe chronic HF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Galectin 3 / blood*
  • Heart Failure / blood*
  • Heart Failure / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Failure / mortality*
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / blood
  • Peptide Fragments / blood
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stroke Volume
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonography
  • Ventricular Function, Left*
  • Ventricular Remodeling*


  • Biomarkers
  • Galectin 3
  • Peptide Fragments
  • pro-brain natriuretic peptide (1-76)
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain