Purpose: Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate in the development for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. Thrombocytopenia (TCP) is the dose-limiting toxicity of T-DM1. A semimechanistic population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model was developed to characterize the effect of T-DM1 on patient platelet counts.
Methods: A PK/PD model with transit compartments that mimic platelet development and circulation was fit to concentration-platelet-time course data from two T-DM1 single-agent studies (TDM3569g; N = 52 and TDM4258g; N = 112). NONMEM(®) 7 software was used for model development. Data from a separate phase II study (TDM4374g; N = 110) were used for model evaluation. Patient baseline characteristics were evaluated as covariates of model PD parameters.
Results: The model described the platelet data well and predicted the incidence of grade ≥3 TCP. The model predicted that with T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg given every 3 weeks (q3w), the lowest platelet nadir would occur after the first dose. Also predicted was a patient subgroup (46 %) having variable degrees of downward drifting platelet-time profiles, which were predicted to stabilize by the eighth treatment cycle to platelet counts above grade 3 TCP. Baseline characteristics were not significant covariates of PD parameters in the model.
Conclusions: This semimechanistic PK/PD model accurately captures the cycle 1 platelet nadir, the downward drift noted in some patient platelet-time profiles, and the ~8 % incidence of grade ≥3 TCP with T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg q3w. This model supports T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg q3w as a well-tolerated dose with minimal dose delays or reductions for TCP.