Immunological determination of gliadin 33-mer equivalent peptides in beers as a specific and practical analytical method to assess safety for celiac patients

J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Mar 15;93(4):933-43. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5830. Epub 2012 Aug 6.


Background: Cereals used for beer manufacturing contain gluten, which is immunotoxic for celiac patients. The gluten remaining after processes of malting and brewing is mostly hydrolyzed, which makes practical evaluation of the immunotoxicity of the gluten pools challenging.

Results: We analyzed the presence of gluten peptides equivalent to the major immunotoxic protease-resistant gliadin 33-mer in 100 Belgium beers, using monoclonal antibodies (G12/A1). Immunochromatographic strips and enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay G12/A1 methods estimated at least 20 ppm gluten equivalents in 90 beers and gluten-free in 10 beers. The G12/A1 reactivity of beer high-performance liquid chromatographic fractions correlated to the presence of T-cell-reactive epitopes identified by peptide sequencing.

Conclusion: The determination of equivalent gliadin 33-mer epitopes in beers has been shown to be practical, specific, and sensitive for the measurement of potential immunotoxicity for celiac patients.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Beer / analysis*
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy*
  • Celiac Disease / immunology
  • Chromatography, Affinity
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Edible Grain / immunology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / analysis
  • Gliadin / analysis
  • Gliadin / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Patient Safety
  • Peptides / analysis
  • Peptides / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Peptides
  • Gliadin