Liver X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor as integrators of lipid homeostasis and immunity

Immunol Rev. 2012 Sep;249(1):72-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2012.01153.x.


Lipid metabolism has emerged as an important modulator of innate and adaptive immune cell fate and function. The lipid-activated transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β/δ, γ and liver X receptor (LXR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have a well-defined role in regulating lipid homeostasis and metabolic diseases. Accumulated evidence over the last decade indicates that PPAR and LXR signaling also influence multiple facets of inflammation and immunity, thereby providing important crosstalk between metabolism and immune system. Herein, we provide a brief introduction to LXR and PPAR biology and review recent discoveries highlighting the importance of PPAR and LXR signaling in the modulation of normal and pathologic states of immunity. We also examine advances in our mechanistic understanding of how nuclear receptors impact immune system function and homeostasis. Finally, we discuss whether LXRs and PPARs could be pharmacologically manipulated to provide novel therapeutic approaches for modulation of the immune system under pathologic inflammation or in the context of allergic and autoimmune disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Immunity*
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / immunology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / metabolism
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors / metabolism*
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Orphan Nuclear Receptors
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors