Misregulation of DNA repair is associated with genetic instability and tumorigenesis. To preserve the integrity of the genome, eukaryotic cells have evolved extremely intricate mechanisms for repairing DNA damage. One type of DNA lesion is a double-strand break (DSB), which is highly toxic when unrepaired. Repair of DSBs can occur through multiple mechanisms. Aside from religating the DNA ends, a homologous template can be used for repair in a process called homologous recombination (HR). One key step in committing to HR is the formation of Rad51 filaments, which perform the homology search and strand invasion steps. In S. cerevisiae, Srs2 is a key regulator of Rad51 filament formation and disassembly. In this review, we highlight potential candidates of Srs2 orthologues in human cells, and we discuss recent advances in understanding how Srs2's so-called "anti-recombinase" activity is regulated.
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