The finding that eukaryotic lanthionine synthetase C-like protein 1 (LanCL1) is a glutathione-binding protein prompted us to investigate the potential relationship between LanCL1 and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). CBS is a trans-sulfuration enzyme critical for the reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and GSH-dependent defense against oxidative stress. In this study we found that LanCL1 bound to CBS in mouse cortex and HEK293 cells. Mapping studies revealed that the binding region in LanCL1 spans amino acids 158-169, and that in CBS contains N-terminal and C-terminal regulatory domains. Recombinant His-LanCL1 directly bound endogenous CBS from mouse cortical lysates and inhibited its activity. Overexpression of LanCL1 inhibited CBS activity in HEK293 cells. CBS activity is reported to be regulated by oxidative stress. Here we found that oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2) or glutamate lowered the GSH/GSSG ratio, dissociated LanCL1 from CBS, and elevated CBS activity in primary rat cortical neurons. Decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio by adding GSSG to cellular extracts also dissociated LanCL1 from CBS. Either lentiviral knockdown of LanCL1 or specific disruption of the LanCL1-CBS interaction using the peptide Tat-LanCL1(153-173) released CBS activity in neurons but occluded CBS activation in response to oxidative stress, indicating the major contribution of the LanCL1-CBS interaction to the regulation of CBS activity. Furthermore, LanCL1 knockdown or Tat-LanCL1(153-173) treatment reduced H(2)O(2) or glutamate-induced neuronal damage. This study implies potential therapeutic value in targeting the LanCL1-CBS interaction for neuronal oxidative stress-related diseases.