The survival rates of melanoma, like any type of cancer, become worse with advancing stage. Spectrum theory is most consistent with the progression of melanoma from the primary site to the in-transit locations, regional or sentinel lymph nodes and beyond to the distant sites. Therefore, early diagnosis and surgical treatment before its spread is the most effective treatment. Recently, new approaches have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. Genomic profiling and sequencing will form the basis for molecular taxonomy for more accurate subgrouping of melanoma patients in the future. New insights of molecular mechanisms of metastasis are summarized in this review article. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard of care for staging primary melanoma without the need for a more morbid complete regional lymph node dissection. With recent developments in molecular biology and genomics, novel molecular targeted therapy is being developed through clinical trials.