Purpose of review: Many patients require tracheal reconstruction either for tracheal stenosis/malacia or following tumor extirpation. However, such patients can be debilitated following failed conventional treatments. Recent advances in tissue engineering and vascularized composite grafts are accelerating the field of tracheal reconstruction. This article reviews new clinical concepts for tracheal reconstruction.
Recent findings: Novel treatments include composite autografts, allografts, chimeric autografts and allografts, tissue-engineered grafts, prosthetic scaffolds, and the use of free-tissue vascularized carriers.
Summary: New procedures for tracheal reconstruction hold much promise for treating difficult tracheal disorders and improving the quality of life for affected patients. Many of the techniques reviewed herein are single case series and require further investigation and validation.