Toll-like receptors, signaling adapters and regulation of the pro-inflammatory response by PI3K

Cell Cycle. 2012 Oct 1;11(19):3559-67. doi: 10.4161/cc.21572. Epub 2012 Aug 16.


TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved molecular structures/products from a wide variety of microbes. Following recognition of ligands, TLRs recruit signaling adapters to initiate a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade culminating in the activation of several transcription factor families. Additionally, TLR signals lead to activation of PI3K, affecting many aspects of the cellular response, including cell survival, proliferation and regulation of the pro-inflammatory response. The recent discovery of BCAP as a TLR signaling adaptor, crucial for linking TLRs to PI3K activation, allows new questions of the importance of PI3K activation downstream of TLRs. Here, we summarize the current understanding of signaling pathways activated by TLRs and provide our perspective on TLR mediated activation of PI3K and its impact on regulating cellular processes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / chemistry
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / enzymology*
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism*


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases