Association of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with urinary calculus: a nationwide population-based study

Int Urogynecol J. 2013 Apr;24(4):565-71. doi: 10.1007/s00192-012-1917-6. Epub 2012 Aug 16.


Introduction and hypothesis: Although one prior study reported an association between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and urinary calculi (UC), no population-based study to date has been conducted to explore this relationship. Therefore, using a population-based data set in Taiwan, this study set out to investigate the association between BPS/IC and a prior diagnosis of UC.

Methods: This study included 9,269 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BPS/IC between 2006 and 2007 and 46,345 randomly selected controls. We used conditional logistic regression analysis to compute the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with UC between cases and controls.

Results: There was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior UC between cases and controls (8.1 vs 4.3 %, p < 0.001). Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that cases were more likely to have been previously diagnosed with UC than controls (OR = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.56-1.84) after adjusting for chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraine, sicca syndrome, allergy, endometriosis, and asthma. BPS/IC was found to be significantly associated with prior UC regardless of stone location; the adjusted ORs of kidney calculus, ureter calculus, bladder calculus, and unspecified calculus when compared to controls were 1.58 (95 % CI = 1.38-1.81), 1.73 (95 % CI = 1.45-2.05), 3.80 (95 % CI = 2.18-6.62), and 1.83 (95 % CI = 1.59-2.11), respectively.

Conclusions: This work generates the hypothesis that UC may be associated with BPS/IC.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cystitis, Interstitial / epidemiology*
  • Cystitis, Interstitial / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Taiwan / epidemiology
  • Urinary Calculi / complications
  • Urinary Calculi / epidemiology*