Much attention has been focused on food components that may be beneficial in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) on high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in mice. C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, containing 0.03% SSC, or 0.1% SSC for 8 weeks. Both doses of SSC exhibited a weight-loss effect and significantly decreased adipose tissue weight, in both visceral and subcutaneous depots. Furthermore, 0.1% SSC treatment dramatically decreased the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol accumulation. Mice administrated with 0.1% SSC had significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin levels, lower homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index, and area under the blood glucose curve, suggesting that insulin sensitivity is enhanced by dietary SSC. Dietary SSC also prevented adipokine imbalance, by increasing adiponectin production and decreasing tumor necrosis factor alpha level caused by high-fat diet. Overall, these data demonstrate that SSC could improve certain metabolic parameters associated with obesity.