Chronic kidney disease and measurement of albuminuria or proteinuria: a position statement

Med J Aust. 2012 Aug 20;197(4):224-5. doi: 10.5694/mja11.11468.


Optimal detection and subsequent risk stratification of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires simultaneous consideration of both kidney function (glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) and kidney damage (as indicated by albuminuria or proteinuria). Measurement of urinary albuminuria and proteinuria is hindered by a lack of standardisation regarding requesting, sample collection, reporting and interpretation of tests. A multidisciplinary working group was convened with the goal of developing and promoting recommendations that achieve consensus on these issues. The working group recommended that the preferred method for assessment of albuminuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients is urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) measurement in a first-void spot urine specimen. Where a first-void specimen is not possible or practical, a random spot urine specimen for UACR is acceptable. The working group recommended that adults with one or more risk factors for CKD should be assessed using UACR and estimated GFR every 1-2 years, depending on their risk-factor profile. Recommended testing algorithms and sex-specific cut-points for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria are provided. The working group recommended that all pathology laboratories in Australia should implement the relevant recommendations as a vital component of an integrated national approach to detection of CKD.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / diagnosis
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Algorithms
  • Australasia
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Decision Support Techniques
  • Humans
  • Proteinuria / diagnosis*
  • Proteinuria / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / urine
  • Risk Assessment


  • Creatinine