Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2012 Sep;15(9):507-11. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0007. Epub 2012 Aug 17.


The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study used data (n=2,894) from a large-sample paper-and-pencil questionnaire study, conducted in 2009 on secondary schools in Netherlands. Thus, the main source of data was a large sample of schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Measurements included the proposed VAT, the Compulsive Internet Use Scale, weekly hours spent on various game types, and several psychosocial variables. The VAT demonstrated excellent reliability, excellent construct validity, a one-factor model fit, and a high degree of measurement invariance across gender, ethnicity, and learning year, indicating that the scale outcomes can be compared across different subgroups with little bias. In summary, the VAT can be helpful in the further study of video game addiction, and it contributes to the debate on possible inclusion of behavioral addictions in the upcoming DSM-V.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Behavior, Addictive / diagnosis*
  • Behavior, Addictive / psychology
  • Compulsive Behavior / diagnosis*
  • Compulsive Behavior / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Male
  • Netherlands
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Video Games / psychology*