Acute effects of dokha smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems among UAE male university students

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(5):1819-22. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.5.1819.


Background: In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) tobacco use is rampant. A less reported, yet widely used form of smoking native to UAE is midwakh or dhokha. The aim of the study is to assess the acute effects of smoking dokha (Arabian pipe) on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems among male university students in the UAE.

Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 97 male volunteers aged more than 17 years. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate of each participant, were measured before and immediately after smoking. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect personal details and data about smoking pattern.

Results: Mean increases in systolic blood pressures (12±1 mmHg), heart rates (20±2 bpm) and respiratory rates (4±1 breaths/min) were observed (p<0.001). A mean decrease in diastolic blood pressures (1±1 mmHg) was observed (p=0.483).

Conclusion: Smoking dokha has a significant acute effect on systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate. Anti smoking campaigns must address the ill effects of this form of smoking. Results from the study warrant further research into this method of smoking which is becoming more popular.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular System / drug effects*
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Respiratory System / drug effects*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Students / statistics & numerical data*
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Universities
  • Young Adult