Effects of pinocembrin on the initiation and promotion stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(5):2257-61. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.5.2257.


Pinocembrin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavanone) is a flavanone extracted from the rhizome of Boesenbergia pandurata. Our previous studies demonstrated that pinocembrin had no toxicity or mutagenicity in rats. We here evaluated its effects on the initiation and promotion stages in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis, using short- and medium-term carcinogenicity tests. Micronucleated hepatocytes and liver glutathione-S-transferase placental form foci were used as end point markers. Pinocembrin was neither mutagenic nor carcinogenic in rat liver, and neither inhibited nor prevented micronucleus formation as well as GST-P positive foci formation induced by diethylnitrosamine. Interestingly, pinocembrin slightly increased the number of GST-P positive foci when given prior to diethylnitrosamine injection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogenicity Tests
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Diethylnitrosamine / toxicity
  • Flavanones / pharmacology*
  • Glutathione S-Transferase pi / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology*
  • Male
  • Micronucleus Tests
  • Precancerous Conditions / chemically induced
  • Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy*
  • Precancerous Conditions / pathology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344


  • Carcinogens
  • Flavanones
  • Diethylnitrosamine
  • pinocembrin
  • Glutathione S-Transferase pi
  • Gstp1 protein, rat