Associations of dietary calcium, vitamin D, milk intakes, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D with bone mass in Spanish adolescents: the HELENA study

J Clin Densitom. 2013 Jan-Mar;16(1):110-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2012.07.008. Epub 2012 Aug 15.


Adequate nutrition is needed for the accrual of bone mass during the pre- and postpubertal growth periods. This study aimed to examine the associations between dietary calcium, vitamin D (calciferol), and milk intakes and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish adolescents, aged 12.5-17.5 years, participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). Bone mass was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and diet via 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n=227; 48% males). A random subsample of 101 adolescents (46% males) had available measures of 25(OH)D. Multiple linear regression was applied. Significant adjusted associations were observed in males, among milk intakes and BMC and BMD. Also in males, whole-body, head, and right arm BMD were positively related to calcium intakes. In females, 25(OH)D was positively related among others to whole-body, subtotal, and left and right arm BMC and BMD. It could be speculated that diet is not a limiting factor of bone mass development in this group of healthy adolescents, and further research on the effect of other factors in addition to diet in a larger sample should be undertaken.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Ergocalciferols / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Health Behavior*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols / administration & dosage*
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Spain
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / analysis


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Ergocalciferols
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D