Social determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factor presence among rural and urban Black and White men

J Mens Health. 2012 Jun 1;9(2):120-126. doi: 10.1016/j.jomh.2012.03.004.


BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health are increasingly being addressed as a causal factor for disparities in health. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of specified social determinants of health on cardiovascular disease (CVD) clinical risk factors in Black and White men residing in rural and urban Georgia. METHODS: Self-report data were collected on a total of 548 Black and White men aged >18 years from 2004-2005. Data were derived from a random telephone survey. Separate logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effects of specified social determinants on the presence of two or more CVD clinical risk factors. In addition, differences within rural and urban men were also assessed. RESULTS: Lower education, unemployment, lower income, and higher general stress were all significantly related to the presence of two or more CVD clinical risk factors. As expected, the covariates of age, race, and residential location also played a significant role in cardiovascular health. Rural men were nearly twice as likely to have two or more CVD risk factors compared to their urban men (P <0.01). Models examining location separately found urban Black men to be 2.6 times as likely to have more than two CVD risk factors (P <0.02). CONCLUSION: Findings reveal social determinants are associated with CVD risk factor differences between Black and White men and between rural and urban residents. It is important for policymakers and the healthcare industry to address these social determinants of health as they try to improve the health of the people they serve.