[Retinal angiomatous proliferations]

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2012 Sep;229(9):877-81. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1315084. Epub 2012 Aug 17.
[Article in German]


Retinal angiomatous proliferations, also known as type 3 neovascularisation, are a common entity amongst patients with age-related macular degeneration. Their prevalence is being estimated at around 12-15% in this group of patients. Certain funduscopic signs like an extravofeal, intraretinal haemorrhage, cystoid macular oedema or a retinal anastomosis of the lesion are considered to be pathognomonic. Verification of the diagnosis should be based on ICG angiography, although OCT is gaining popularity. Interestingly, RAP lesions seem to have distinctive demographic characteristics and respond differently to established therapies, differentiating them from regular type 1 or type 2 neovascularisation. Current therapies of choice are VEGF inhibitors. Nonetheless, combination therapies, combining different approaches like anti-VEGF treatment and photodynamic therapy, have received more attention recently.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Angiomatosis / diagnosis*
  • Angiomatosis / therapy*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Photochemotherapy / methods*
  • Retinal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Retinal Diseases / therapy*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A