Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence

Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012 Aug 21;4(1):39. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-4-39.

Abstract

Background: Individuals with diabetes who are smokers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease, premature death, and microvascular complications. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and to evaluate if the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety differ between the three groups studied (patients with T2D who smoke; patients with T2D who do not smoke; smokers without T2D), and finally determine if the degree of nicotine dependence is related to symptoms of anxiety and depression in smokers (with or without T2D).

Methods: Three study groups were formed: 46 T2D smokers (DS), 46 T2D non-smokers (D), and 46 smokers without diabetes (S), totaling 138 participants. Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and Fagerström Test were applied.

Results: The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with T2D was 30.4% and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.072) or depression (p = 0.657) in the DS group compared to group D or S. Among male patients with T2D, the smokers had a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (19.6%) than non-smokers (4,3%) (p = 0,025). The prevalence of high nicotine dependence among smokers with and without T2D was 39.1% and 37.1%, respectively (p = 0.999). Fagerström scores showed no significant correlation with the scores obtained on the subscale of anxiety (p = 0,735) or depression (p = 0,364).

Conclusions: The prevalence of depression and anxiety among smokers with and without diabetes and non-smokers T2D is similar. Among male individuals with T2D, the smokers have more symptoms of anxiety than the non-smokers. There is no difference in the prevalence of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without diabetes. The presence of symptoms of anxiety or depression is similar between patients who are dependent and not dependent on nicotine.