Reference values of hematology, chemistry, electrolytes, blood gas, coagulation time, and urinalysis in the Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Xenotransplantation. Jul-Aug 2012;19(4):244-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2012.00713.x.


Background: Due to increasing preclinical study using the rhesus monkeys, the physiological data of these monkeys are very important for the objective evaluation of experimental results. Here, we report the physiological values of the Chinese rhesus monkeys acclimated under a well-controlled laboratory environment.

Methods: Seventy healthy rhesus monkeys of both genders (29 males and 41 females) were used in this study. Available data on hematology, serum biochemistry, electrolytes, blood gas, coagulation time, urinalysis, water consumption, urine volume, and body weight were examined.

Results: The lymphocyte values were 1.5-2.5 times higher than the neutrophil values in both genders. In serum biochemistry, there was no significant difference between the two genders. Interestingly, the values of alkaline phosphatase from the monkeys were very high. According to isoenzyme analysis, the percentage of alkaline phosphatase that originated from the bone was 60%, and this value was significantly higher than that from the liver (39%, P = 0.020).

Conclusion: Physiological data are very important parameters that can be directly and indirectly related to organ function (e.g. islet, kidney, liver, heart, etc.) in the transplantation model. In this respect, our data constitute valuable references for preclinical study using the Chinese rhesus monkeys.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Coagulation
  • Blood Gas Analysis / veterinary
  • Electrolytes / blood
  • Female
  • Hematology
  • Macaca mulatta / blood*
  • Macaca mulatta / urine*
  • Male
  • Models, Animal
  • Reference Values
  • Urinalysis / veterinary


  • Electrolytes