Rapid detection of the recently emerged Bordetella pertussis strains with the ptxP3 pertussis toxin promoter allele by real-time PCR

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Oct;18(10):E377-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.04000.x. Epub 2012 Aug 22.


Bordetella pertussis strains with the pertussis toxin promoter allele ptxP3 have expanded and replaced resident ptxP1 strains in several European countries. We developed an allele-specific real-time PCR method to identify strains with the allele ptxP3, and investigated the emergence of ptxP3 strains by genotyping Finnish clinical isolates (n = 524) from 1953 to 2010. The first ptxP3 strain was detected in 1994, and has become predominant since 2003. Our results demonstrate that the allele-specific real-time PCR is a suitable method for rapid detection of ptxP3 strains, and show the emergence and establishment of ptxP3 strains in Finland.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles*
  • Bordetella pertussis / classification
  • Bordetella pertussis / genetics
  • Bordetella pertussis / isolation & purification*
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Molecular Typing / methods*
  • Pertussis Toxin / genetics*
  • Prevalence
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Whooping Cough / epidemiology
  • Whooping Cough / microbiology


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Pertussis Toxin