The study of the detailed molecular history of cancer development is one of the most promising techniques to understand and fight this diverse and prevalent disease. Unfortunately, this history is as diverse as cancer itself. Therefore, even with next-generation sequencing techniques, it is not easy to distinguish significant (driver) from random (passenger) events. The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was formed to solve this fundamental issue by coordinating the sequencing of samples from 50 different cancer types and/or sub-types that are of clinical and societal importance. The contribution of Spain in this consortium has been focused on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This approach has unveiled new and unexpected events in the development of CLL. In this review, we introduce the approaches utilized by the consortium for the study of the CLL genome and discuss the recent results and future perspectives of this work.