Asymmetrical mRNA localization and subsequent local translation provide efficient mechanisms for protein sorting in polarized cells. Defects in mRNA localization have been linked to developmental abnormalities and neurological diseases. Thus, it is critical to understand the machineries mediating and mechanisms underlying the asymmetrical distribution of mRNA and its regulation. The goal of this review is to summarize recent advances in the understanding of mRNA transport and localization, including the assembly and sorting of transport messenger ribonucleic protein (mRNP) granules, molecular mechanisms of active mRNP transport, cytoskeletal interactions and regulation of these events by extracellular signals.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.