Exenatide twice daily: analysis of effectiveness and safety data stratified by age, sex, race, duration of diabetes, and body mass index

Postgrad Med. 2012 Jul;124(4):21-32. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2012.07.2567.


Background: Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is used twice daily (BID) as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for the improvement of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this pooled analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of exenatide BID in patients stratified by various demographic characteristics.

Methods: This post hoc analysis included data from 16 randomized controlled trials in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with 10-μg exenatide BID. Each patient was classified into subgroups on the basis of his or her baseline values for age (< 65 or ≥ 65 years), sex (male or female), race (white, black, Asian, or Hispanic), duration of diabetes (< 10 years or ≥ 10 years), and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 20 to < 25, ≥ 25 to < 30, ≥ 30 to < 35, or ≥ 35 kg/m(2)).

Results: A total of 2067 patients were included. All groups experienced significant improvements in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose levels (other than black patients, who had a relatively low baseline fasting plasma glucose level), and body weight from baseline to endpoint. Most groups had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure. All of the age, sex, and duration of diabetes groups experienced significant improvements in lipid levels (other than high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Whites and Asians generally experienced significant improvements in lipid levels, whereas blacks and Hispanics did not. Significant improvements in lipid levels were generally seen across BMI groups. The most common adverse events overall were nausea (38.6%), hypoglycemia (28.4%), and vomiting (14.0%). Hypoglycemia was more common overall in patients who were taking a concomitant sulfonylurea than it was in patients who were not.

Conclusion: In this pooled analysis, exenatide BID improved glycemic control and body weight, and had generally beneficial effects on blood pressure and lipid levels in patients regardless of baseline age, sex, race, duration of diabetes, or BMI. Gastrointestinal events were the most common adverse events.

Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00039026, NCT00039013, NCT00082381, NCT00035984, NCT00082407, NCT00381342, NCT00360334, NCT00375492, NCT00603239, NCT00765817, NCT00577824, NCT00434954].

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Mass Index
  • Continental Population Groups
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / ethnology
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Exenatide
  • Female
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / agonists
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Peptides / administration & dosage*
  • Peptides / adverse effects
  • Peptides / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Venoms / administration & dosage*
  • Venoms / adverse effects
  • Venoms / therapeutic use


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Peptides
  • Venoms
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Exenatide

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00035984
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00039013
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00039026
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00082381
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00082407
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00360334
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00375492
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00381342
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00434954
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00577824
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00603239
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00765817