The technology for generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells emerged to circumvent the ethical and immunological limitations of embryonic stem cell (ESC). The recent progress of iPSC technology offers an unprecedented tool for regenerative medicine; however, integrating viral-driven iPSCs prohibits clinical applications by their genetic alterations and tumorigenicity. Various approaches including nonintegrating, nonviral, and nongenetic methods have been developed for generating clinically compatible iPSCs. In addition, approaches for using more clinically convenient or compatible source cells replacing fibroblasts have been actively pursued. While iPSC and ESC closely resemble in genomic, cell biologic, and phenotypic characteristics, these two pluripotent stem cells are not identical in terms of differentiation capacity and epigenetic features. In this chapter, we deal with the current techniques of generating iPSCs and their various characteristics.
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