The oviduct, or Fallopian tube in humans, transports oocytes and sperm, serves as the site of fertilization, and supports early embryonic development. The oviduct is essential for fertility. In the mouse, the oviduct is a coiled, complex structure that develops from the simple embryonic Müllerian duct. The oviduct consists of four segments, including the infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, and uterotubal junction. Additionally, the mouse oviduct forms coils, develops longitudinal folds, and undergoes both mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation. Oviduct development and differentiation occurs perinatally. Several signaling pathways have been found to be involved in oviduct formation, such as Wnt, Tgfβ, microRNA processing, as well as others. Overall, the process of oviduct development is poorly understood and can be utilized to further knowledge of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, regulation of coiling, characteristics of pseudostratified epithelia, and smooth muscle differentiation.