Background: Women with BRCA1 gene mutation have 85% risk of breast cancer; the risk for BRCA2 carriers is 45%. The aim of the study was to verify if prophylactic mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction can prevent breast cancer in BRCA positive patients.
Material: There were 100 BRCA positive women in which prophylactic mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, 75 dieps, 25 with implants, performed in period 2000-2011. Group A was composed of healthy, non-affected 41 patients, group B of 59 patients in remission after breast cancer treatment. These groups were compared to group C that consisted of 219 healthy carriers of BRCA1/2, non-operated, from registry of genetic department of the Masaryk Memorial Cancer in Brno, from 2000-2011.
Method: Follow-up for oncology status was done in September 2011 for all 3 groups.
Results: Average follow-up of 21 months revealed that in group A there was no breast cancer, in group B 4 patients died and 2 had treatment for metastases. In group C, there were 16 new cases of breast cancer.
Conclusion: Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with immediate reconstruction can be an effective way in breast cancer prevention in healthy carriers of BRCA1/2 mutation. In BRCA positive patients treated for breast cancer, the effect of prophylactic mastectomy is unclear. Their survival is more influenced by their previous disease than by a new tumor in the breast.