Emerging adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor glycemic control, gaps in medical care, and adverse health outcomes. With the increasing incidence in type 1 diabetes in the pediatric population, there will be an increase in the numbers of teens and young adults transferring their care from pediatric providers to adult diabetes services in the future. In recent years, the topic of transitioning pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes to adult diabetes care has been discussed at length in the literature and there have been many observational studies. However, there are few interventional studies and, to date, no randomized clinical trials. This paper discusses the rationale for studying this important area. We review both observational and interventional literature over the past several years, with a focus on new research. In addition, important areas for future research are outlined.