The success of pharmacogenomics in moving genetic association studies from bench to bedside: study design and implementation of precision medicine in the post-GWAS era

Hum Genet. 2012 Oct;131(10):1615-26. doi: 10.1007/s00439-012-1221-z. Epub 2012 Aug 25.


Pharmacogenomics is emerging as a popular type of study for human genetics in recent years. This is primarily due to the many success stories and high potential for translation to clinical practice. In this review, the strengths and limitations of pharmacogenomics are discussed as well as the primary epidemiologic, clinical trial, and in vitro study designs implemented. A brief discussion of molecular and analytic approaches will be reviewed. Finally, several examples of bench-to-bedside clinical implementations of pharmacogenetic traits will be described. Pharmacogenomics continues to grow in popularity because of the important genetic associations identified that drive the possibility of precision medicine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Genetic Association Studies*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenetics* / methods
  • Pharmacogenetics* / trends
  • Precision Medicine
  • Research Design
  • Translational Research, Biomedical*