Acute inflammation is an indispensable host response to foreign challenges or tissue injury. In healthy conditions, inflammatory processes are self-limiting and self-resolving, suggesting the existence of endogenous mechanisms for the control of inflammation and resolution. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response is required, and recent studies have uncovered the roles of endogenous lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e. lipoxins, resolvins, protectins) in controlling the resolution of inflammation. This review presents recent advances in understanding the formation and action of these mediators, especially focusing on the LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach and the emerging roles of eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators in controlling acute inflammation and resolution.