Background: Previous studies of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in children are limited to case series or single-institution reviews, which describe HHS primarily in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Objective: To estimate the incidence and describe the epidemiologic characteristics of HHS among children in USA.
Subjects: All discharges in the Kids' Inpatient Database - a triennial, nationwide, stratified probability sample of hospital discharges for years 1997-2009 - with age 0-18 yr and a diagnosis of HHS.
Methods: Using sample weights, we calculated the incidence and population rate of hospitalization with a diagnosis of HHS.
Results: Our sample included 1074 HHS hospitalizations; of these, 42.9% were 16-18 yr, 70.6% had type 1 diabetes (T1D), and 53.0% had major or extreme severity of illness. The median length of stay was 2.6 d, 2.7% of hospitalizations ended in death, and median hospital charge was $10 882. When comparing HHS hospitalizations by diabetes type, the proportion with T1D fell steadily with age, from 89.1% among children 0-9 yr, to 65.1% in 16-18 yr olds. Patients with T1D had a shorter length of stay by 0.9 d, and had a lower median charge by $5311. There was no difference in mortality by diabetes type. Population rates for HHS hospitalization rose 52.4% from 2.1 to 3.2 per 1 000 000 children from 1997 to 2009.
Conclusion: Hospitalizations for a diagnosis of HHS have high morbidity and are increasing in incidence since 1997. In contrast to prior reports, we found a substantial percentage of HHS hospitalizations occurred among children with T1D.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.