Beyond knockouts: cre resources for conditional mutagenesis

Mamm Genome. 2012 Oct;23(9-10):587-99. doi: 10.1007/s00335-012-9430-2. Epub 2012 Aug 29.


With the effort of the International Phenotyping Consortium to produce thousands of strains with conditional potential gathering steam, there is growing recognition that it must be supported by a rich toolbox of cre driver strains. The approaches to build cre strains have evolved in both sophistication and reliability, replacing first-generation strains with tools that can target individual cell populations with incredible precision and specificity. The modest set of cre drivers generated by individual labs over the past 15+ years is now growing rapidly, thanks to a number of large-scale projects to produce new cre strains for the community. The power of this growing resource, however, depends upon the proper deep characterization of strain function, as even the best designed strain can display a variety of undesirable features that must be considered in experimental design. This must be coupled with the parallel development of informatics tools to provide functional data to the user and facilitated access to the strains through public repositories. We discuss the current progress on all of these fronts and the challenges that remain to ensure the scientific community can capitalize on the tremendous number of mouse resources at their disposal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Genomics
  • Integrases / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout / genetics*
  • Mutagenesis*


  • Cre recombinase
  • Integrases