Continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes

Endocrine. 2013 Feb;43(1):41-50. doi: 10.1007/s12020-012-9765-1. Epub 2012 Aug 28.


Continuous glucose monitors (CGM), devices that can measure interstitial glucose in "real time," have become widely available particularly for use in patients with diabetes, and their accuracy and ease of use have greatly improved over the last decade. A number of large and well-controlled clinical trials have firmly established their usefulness in improving metabolic control (as measured by HbA1C) and decreasing time spent in hypoglycemia in adults; however, data have been less robust proving benefit in children and adolescents. Benefits are clearly linked to near-continuous wear. Insulin dosing algorithms based on CGM glucose trends have proven useful in dissecting the large volume of data generated daily by these devices, although these are imperfect tools, particularly in children. The technology is likely to be most useful when integrated with insulin pump delivery systems (sensor augmented). In this review, we concentrate on the analysis of published results of the largest trials in adults and children, including the very young, with diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Extracellular Fluid / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / adverse effects
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory* / adverse effects
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory* / instrumentation
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / metabolism
  • Quality of Life


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin