Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 4 (2), 152-7

Does the Evidence for an Inverse Relationship Between Serum Vitamin D Status and Breast Cancer Risk Satisfy the Hill Criteria?

Does the Evidence for an Inverse Relationship Between Serum Vitamin D Status and Breast Cancer Risk Satisfy the Hill Criteria?

Sharif B Mohr et al. Dermatoendocrinol.

Abstract

A wide range of epidemiologic and laboratory studies combined provide compelling evidence of a protective role of vitamin D on risk of breast cancer. This review evaluates the scientific evidence for such a role in the context of the A.B. Hill criteria for causality, in order to assess the presence of a causal, inverse relationship, between vitamin D status and breast cancer risk. After evaluation of this evidence in the context of Hill's criteria, it was found that the criteria for a causal relationship were largely satisfied. Studies in human populations and the laboratory have consistently demonstrated that vitamin D plays an important role in the prevention of breast cancer. Vitamin D supplementation is an urgently needed, low cost, effective, and safe intervention strategy for breast cancer prevention that should be implemented without delay. In the meantime, randomized controlled trials of high doses of vitamin D(3) for prevention of breast cancer should be undertaken to provide the necessary evidence to guide national health policy.

Keywords: Hill criteria; breast neoplasms; epidemiology; vitamin D.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 12 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC. Acid haze air pollution and breast and colon cancer mortality in 20 Canadian cities. Can J Public Health. 1989;80:96–100. - PubMed
    1. Gorham ED, Garland FC, Garland CF. Sunlight and breast cancer incidence in the USSR. Int J Epidemiol. 1990;19:820–4. doi: 10.1093/ije/19.4.820. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Young JF., Jr Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med. 1990;19:614–22. doi: 10.1016/0091-7435(90)90058-R. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Freedman DM, Dosemeci M, McGlynn K. Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:257–62. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.4.257. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002;94:1867–75. doi: 10.1002/cncr.10427. - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback