Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have led to improved asthma control and reduced asthma mortality in the Western world. ICS are effective in combating T-helper type 2-driven inflammation featuring mast cell and eosinophilic airway infiltration. Their effect on innate immunity-driven neutrophilic inflammation is poor and their ability to prevent airway remodeling and accelerated lung decline is controversial. Although ICS remain pivotal drugs in asthma management, research is needed to find drugs complementary to the combination ICS/long-acting β2-agonist in refractory asthma and perhaps a new class of drugs as a first-line treatment in mild to moderate noneosinophilic asthma.
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