Background: Defects of cytoarchitectural proteins can cause left ventricular noncompaction, which is often associated with conduction system diseases. We have previously identified a p.D117N mutation in the LIM domain-binding protein 3-encoding Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ motif gene (ZASP) in a patient with left ventricular noncompaction and conduction disturbances. We sought to investigate the role of p.D117N mutation in the LBD3 NM_001080114.1 isoform (ZASP1-D117N) for the regulation of cardiac sodium channel (Na(v)1.5) that plays an important role in the cardiac conduction system.
Methods and results: Effects of ZASP1-wild-type and ZASP1-D117N on Na(v)1.5 were studied in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Patch-clamp study demonstrated that ZASP1-D117N significantly attenuated I(Na) by 27% in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and by 32% in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. In addition, ZASP1-D117N rightward shifted the voltage-dependent activation and inactivation in both systems. In silico simulation using Luo-Rudy phase 1 model demonstrated that altered Na(v)1.5 function can reduce cardiac conduction velocity by 28% compared with control. Pull-down assays showed that both wild-type and ZASP1-D117N can complex with Na(v)1.5 and telethonin/T-Cap, which required intact PDZ domains. Immunohistochemical staining in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes demonstrates that ZASP1-D117N did not significantly disturb the Z-line structure. Disruption of cytoskeletal networks with 5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl homopiperazine and cytochalasin D abolished the effects of ZASP1-D117N on Na(v)1.5.
Conclusions: ZASP1 can form protein complex with telethonin/T-Cap and Na(v)1.5. The left ventricular noncompaction-specific ZASP1 mutation can cause loss of function of Na(v)1.5, without significant alteration of the cytoskeletal protein complex. Our study suggests that electric remodeling can occur in left ventricular noncompaction subject because of a direct effect of mutant ZASP on Na(v)1.5.