Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential amino acid, is found in large concentrations in all mammalian tissues and is particularly abundant in aquatic foods. Taurine exhibits membrane stabilizing, osmoregulatory and cytoprotective effects, antioxidative properties, regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, modulates ion movement and neurotransmitters, reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in various organs and controls blood pressure. Recently, emerging evidence from the literature shows the effectiveness of taurine as a protective agent against several environmental toxins and drug-induced multiple organ injuries as the outcome of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, testicular toxicity and cardiotoxicity in several animal models. Besides, taurine is also effective in combating diabetes and its associated complications, including cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and atherosclerosis. These beneficial effects appear to be due to the multiple actions of taurine on cellular functions. This review summarizes the mechanism of the prophylactic role of taurine against several environmental toxins and drug-induced organ pathophysiology and diabetes.