A systematic review of the literature was performed in July 2011. Original papers based on longitudinal studies measuring spine, femoral neck, or total body bone mass by DXA were included (n = 17). Birth weight was positively associated with bone mass among children. The association was unclear among adolescents and weak among adults. This study aims to evaluate the association between birth weight and bone mass in future ages through a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature was performed in July 2011 in Medline, Web of Science and LILACS bases using key terms: ("birth size" OR "birth weight" OR birthweight OR prematurity OR premature OR "gestational age") AND (osteoporosis OR "bone mass" OR "bone density" OR "bone mineral density" OR "bone mineral content" OR "bone area") AND (longitudinal OR cohort). Original papers based on longitudinal studies measuring lumbar spine, femoral neck or total body bone mass by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included. A meta-analysis was performed using birth weight and bone mass density and/or content as continuous variables and adjusted for current height and/or weight. A total of 218 articles were retrieved from which 17 were selected and grouped into three categories according to age: studies with children; with adolescents and young adults, and studies with adults (older than 25). Five papers were included in the meta-analysis. Positive association between birth weight and bone mass was clear among children, unclear among adolescents, and weak among adults. The effect on bone mass content was stronger than those on body mass density regardless of age. Birth weight influences positively bone health in later life. Preventive health policies dealing with early-life modifiable risk factors, as birth weight, should be encouraged to attain an optimal peak bone mass as an strategy to decrease osteoporosis in the elderly.