Umyuangcaryaraq "Reflecting": multidimensional assessment of reflective processes on the consequences of alcohol use among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2012 Sep;38(5):468-75. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2012.702169.

Abstract

Background and aims: Concerns in some settings regarding the accuracy and ethics of employing direct questions about alcohol use suggest need for alternative assessment approaches with youth. Umyuangcaryaraq is a Yup'ik Alaska Native word meaning "Reflecting."

Objectives: The Reflective Processes Scale was developed as a youth measure tapping awareness and thinking over potential negative consequences of alcohol misuse as a protective factor that includes cultural elements often shared by many other Alaska Native and American Indian cultures. This study assessed multidimensional structure, item functioning, and validity.

Methods: Responses from 284 rural Alaska Native youth allowed bifactor analysis to assess structure, estimates of location and discrimination parameters, and convergent and discriminant validity.

Results: A bifactor model of the scale items with three content factors provided excellent fit to observed data. Item response theory analysis suggested a binary response format as optimal. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was established.

Conclusion: The measure provides an assessment of reflective processes about alcohol that Alaska Native youth engage in when thinking about reasons not to drink.

Scientific significance: The concept of reflective processes has potential to extend understandings of cultural variation in mindfulness, alcohol expectancies research, and culturally mediated protective factors in Alaska Native and American Indian youth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alaska / epidemiology
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Alcohol Drinking / ethnology
  • Alcohol Drinking / psychology*
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders / ethnology
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Awareness
  • Child
  • Cultural Characteristics
  • Data Collection
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inuits / psychology*
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Rural Population