The study was aimed to evaluate the impact of disease status on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 32 patients with refractory and relapsed AML received allo-HSCT after myeloablative conditioning regimen, including 17 patients in no-remission (NR) and 15 patients in complete remission (CR) at the time of transplant. Treatment related adverse events, relapse rate and leukemia free survival (LFS) were analyzed. The results showed that the parameters of sex, age, cytogenetic risk and transplant procedures were comparable between the two groups. 30 patients had successful engraftment, except one had graft failure and one died from severe veno-occlusive disease in the NR group. The incidences of aGVHD in NR group and CR group were 47.1% (8 patients) and 33.5% (5 patients) respectively. Out of comparable patients, 5 from 9 patients in NR group developed with cGVHD, and 4 from 11 patients in CR group were subjected to cGVHD. There were no statistic difference in incidences of aGVHD and cGVHD between two group. Compa-red with CR group, NR group had a higher treatment-related mortality (29.4% vs 14.3%, P = 0.392) and relapse rate (42.9% vs 26.7% P = 0.300), but there was no significant difference. With a median follow-up of 13 (1 - 124) months, 6 patients remained alive in both of the two groups, and the 2 year LFS of them were parallel (35.3% vs 40.0%, P = 0.267). Among these 32 patients, overall survival (OS) was better in patients with age < 35 years (P = 0.044) and with the appearance of cGVHD (P = 0.046). It is concluded that allo-HSCT is an effective salvage therapy for patients with refractory and relapsed AML, and the overall outcome seems unrelated to the disease status (NR or CR) before transplantation. As such, for refractory and relapsed AML patients in non-remission, performance of allo-HSCT to achieve long-term survival is feasible.