Use of animals by NATO countries in military medical training exercises: an international survey

Mil Med. 2012 Aug;177(8):907-10. doi: 10.7205/milmed-d-12-00056.


Among the 28 member nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a variety of training methodologies--including simulators, moulage scenarios, didactics and live animal laboratories-are used to prepare military medical personnel to treat injured civilians and soldiers. For ethical, educational, practical, and economic reasons, the necessity of animal use for this purpose has come into question. This article reports the results of a survey examining the prevalence of animal use in military medical training exercises among all NATO nations, finding that more than three-quarters of these countries do not use animals.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Experimentation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Internationality*
  • Military Medicine / education*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires