Chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria

Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:121-43. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-110711-155421. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Abstract

In dividing cells, chromosome duplication once per generation must be coordinated with faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes and with cell growth and division. Many of the mechanistic details of bacterial replication elongation are well established. However, an understanding of the complexities of how replication initiation is controlled and coordinated with other cellular processes is emerging only slowly. In contrast to eukaryotes, in which replication and segregation are separate in time, the segregation of most newly replicated bacterial genetic loci occurs sequentially soon after replication. We compare the strategies used by chromosomes and plasmids to ensure their accurate duplication and segregation and discuss how these processes are coordinated spatially and temporally with growth and cell division. We also describe what is known about the three conserved families of ATP-binding proteins that contribute to chromosome segregation and discuss their inter-relationships in a range of disparate bacteria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Division
  • Chromosome Segregation*
  • Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Bacterial / metabolism
  • DNA Primase
  • DNA Replication*
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics*
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases / genetics
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism
  • Exodeoxyribonucleases / genetics
  • Exodeoxyribonucleases / metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Translocation, Genetic

Substances

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DnaA protein, Bacteria
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • FtsK protein, E coli
  • Membrane Proteins
  • DNA Primase
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases
  • Exodeoxyribonucleases
  • dnaG protein, E coli