Background and aims: New thrombectomy devices allow successful and rapid recanalization in acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless prognostics factors need to be systematically analyzed in the context of these new therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors related to clinical outcome following Solitaire FR thrombectomy in ischemic stroke.
Methods: Fifty consecutive ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion were included. Three treatment strategies were applied; rescue therapy, combined therapy, and standalone thrombectomy. DWI ASPECT score<5 was the main exclusion criterion after initial MRI (T2, T2, TOF, FLAIR, DWI). Sexes, age, time to recanalization were prospectively collected. Clinical outcome was assessed post treatment, day one and discharge by means of a NIHSS. Three months mRS evaluation was performed by an independent neurologist. The probability of good outcome at 3 months was assessed by forward stepwise logistic regression using baseline NIHSS score, Glasgow score at entrance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, blood-brain barrier disruption on post-operative CT, embolic and hemorrhagic post procedural complication, ischemic brain lesion extension on 24h imaging, NIHSS at discharge, ASPECT score, and time to recanalization. All variables significantly associated with the outcome in the univariate analysis were entered in the model. The significance of adding or removing a variable from the logistic model was determined by the maximum likelihood ratio test. Odds-ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results: At 3 months 54% of patients had a mRS 0-2, 70% in MCA, 44% in ICA, and 43% in BA with an overall mortality rate of 12%. Baseline NIHSS score (p=0.001), abnormal Glasgow score at entrance (p=0.053) hyperglycemia (p=0.023), dyslipidemia (p=0.031), blood-brain barrier disruption (p=0.022), embolic and hemorrhagic post procedural complication, ischemic brain lesion extension on 24h imaging (p=0.008), NIHSS at discharge (0.001) were all factors significantly associated with 3 month clinical outcome. ASPECT subgroup (5-7 and 8-10), and time to recanalization were not correlated to 3 months outcome. Baseline NIHSS score (OR, 1.228; 95% CI, 1.075-1.402; p=0.002), hyperglycemia (OR, 10.013; 95% CI, 1.068-93.915; p=0.04), emerged as independent predictors of outcome at 3 months. Overall embolic complication rate was 10%, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 2%.
Conclusion: The MCA location was associated with the best clinical outcome. A DWI ASPECT cutoff score of 5 was reliable and safe. No correlation with time to recanalization was observed in this study. NIHSS and hyperglycemia at admission were the two factors independently associated with a bad outcome at 90 days.
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