Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a mannose-binding lectin that inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking mannose-dependent target cell entry via C-type lectins. Like HIV-1, Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses mannosylated surface structures and exploits C-type lectins to gain cell access. In this study, we investigated whether CV-N, like HIV-1, can inhibit M. tuberculosis infection. We found that CV-N specifically interacted with mycobacteria by binding to the mannose-capped lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan. Furthermore, CV-N competed with the C-type lectins DC-SIGN and mannose receptor for ligand binding and inhibited the binding of M. tuberculosis to dendritic cells but, unexpectedly, not to macrophages. Subsequent in vivo infection experiments in a mouse model demonstrated that, despite its activity, CV-N did not inhibit or delay M. tuberculosis infection. This outcome argues against a critical role for mannose-dependent C-type lectin interactions during the initial stages of murine M. tuberculosis infection and suggests that, depending on the circumstances, M. tuberculosis can productively infect cells using different modes of entry.