The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: an analysis of 92 prenatally diagnosed cases

Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Jan;46(1):156-67.


We undertook an international survey of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism to ascertain the phenotypic spectrum of this condition. Ninety-two cases were obtained by means of a questionnaire sent to over 730 cytogenetic laboratories. Seventy-six cases (75 males and 1 female) had physical examinations after delivery or termination of pregnancy. Among these, there were four significant genital anomalies: three hypospadias and one female with clitoromegaly. Gonadal histology was abnormal in three (27%) of 11 cases, all of whom had normal male external genitalia. Other anomalies were noted in five cases: one cystic hygroma in a male, two cardiac anomalies, one spina bifida with multiple other defects, and one intrauterine growth retardation. There was no relationship between the percent mosaicism and the presence or degree of abnormalities. We conclude that 95% of 45,X/46,XY fetuses will have normal male genitalia, although there will also be a significant risk (27%) for abnormal gonadal histology. Long-term follow-up studies of prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are needed to study, without ascertainment bias, stature, pubertal development, tumor risk, and fertility.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis / diagnosis
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis / genetics
  • Humans
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Mosaicism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis*
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations / diagnosis*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • X Chromosome*